Urology is a surgical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders stemming from the urinary tract as well as from the reproductive system in males. Knowledge of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, and other specialties is required by urologists because of the wide variety of clinical problems encountered.
The American Urologic Association (AUA), the governing body for the specialty, divides Urology into seven sub-specialties:
- Oncology: Surgical management of neoplasms involving the Adrenals, Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, Prostate, Urethra, Testes, External Genitalia
- Calculi: Medical, endoscopic, extracorporeal, percutaneous, and surgical management of stones of the urinary tract.
- Female Urology: Medical and surgical management of incontinence and pelvic outlet relaxation disorders.
- Infertility: Medical and surgical treatment of male infertility.
- Pediatrics: Medical and surgical treatment of urological disease in the pediatric population.
- Transplant: Renal transplantation.
- Neurourology: Urodynamic evaluation of patients; medical and surgical management of voiding disorders and erectile dysfunction.